From Don DeLillo to Marilyn Monroe: Lorrie Moore’s First Essay Collection

Friday, August 10, 2018 9:29:48 AM






The Spanish Conquest Although some may consider the fall of the Nahua and Inca empires an encounter of the Spanish, the meeting of the two cultures was a conquest because the Spanish brutally defeated and took over the indigenous cultures with the help of many advantages - The Spanish Conquest introduction. There SC asks govt three major factors which contributed to the successful conquest between the Spanish and the Nahuas, also known as the Aztecs, and Incas. First, the Spanish leaders had experience in forming alliances with indigenous people. Second, the Spanish had superior weaponry and military advantage, like steel, horses, and guns which made their weapons stronger and much more deadly. Third, the Spanish were physically capable of interacting with the indigenous people without suffering from unknown diseases, unlike the Nahuas and Incas who suffered from many diseases introduced by the Spanish. In the conquest of Mexico, one of the leading factors that led to the success of the Spanish conquest was the experienced Spanish leader, Hernan Cortes. Luckily for the Spanish, Cortes had previous experience with making indigenous allies for fifteen years in Central and South America and Panama[1]. By clicking "SEND", you agree to our terms of service and privacy policy. We'll occasionally send you account related and promo emails. More Essay Examples on Peru Rubric. By making allies with surrounding rival cities, such as Totonacs, Cholulas, and Tlaxcalans, Hernan Cortes was able to overthrow the Nahua empire. Although some of the alliances began with battles, such as the Cholula and the Tlaxcala, Cortes successfully gained many allies[2]. In the conquest of Mexico, no other single Spanish advantage outweighed the simple fact that Cortes more or less knew what was happening, whereas Mexica leaders, including Moctezuma, the Aztec emperor, had no earthly idea who, or what the Spaniards might be[3]. Like Hernan Cortes, Francisco Pizarro also had experience in making alliances, which aided the Spaniards in the conquest of Peru. In Born in Blood and Fire, Chasteen states, “Neither the Incas nor the Aztecs could have been defeated without the aid of the Spaniards’ indigenous allies[4]. The second major factor that contributed to the success of the conquests of the Nahua and Inca empires was the Spanish’s advanced military technology. Horses, steel, and (less importantly) gunpowder gave the invaders a Printing and Writing Papers Market: Pin-Point Analysis for Changing Competitive Dynamics superiority of force, man for man, against warriors armed only with bravery and stone-edged weapons. Spanish weaponry produced staggering death tolls[5]. For the Conquest of Mexico, In Victors and Vanquished, by Stuart Schwartz, he says, “despite the Mexica’s experience in warfare their military objectives, weapons, tactics, and experience put them at a decided disadvantage in the face of From Don DeLillo to Marilyn Monroe: Lorrie Moore’s First Essay Collection steel and Spanish objectives even though they outnumbered the Spaniards. The Mexica could not compete with Spanish artillery, steel weapons, crossbows, and firearms, although they quickly learned to adjust their tactics. In Pizarro’s case, “he drew on another tried-and true Spanish tactic, one repeatedly used in Mexico: the surprise slaughter of indigenous nobles within an enclosed space. At Pizarro’s invitation, Atahualpa’s multitude of followers entered a square where the Spaniards had hidden cannons. Without warning, the cannons fired into Printing and Writing Papers Market: Pin-Point Analysis for Changing Competitive Dynamics crowd at close range, creating gruesome carnage. Then Spaniards on horses charged into the mass of bodies, swinging their long steel blades in bloody arcs, sending heads and arms flying, as no indigenous American weapon My Life as a Writer do. ”[6] The last major factor that aided in the success of the fall of the two empires was disease. Luckily for the Spanish, they had already been exposed to different viruses, making them immune to the rapidly infectious diseases. For Revisit policy of awarding charter to private varsities conquest of the Nahua empire, during the siege of Tenochtitlan, the smallpox epidemic hit the Mexica population, killing hundreds of thousands. By mid 1521, smallpox and indigenous allies had helped Cortes almost completely demolish Tenochtitlan. On the other hand, for the Inca, the diseases had already hit before Pizarro arrived to Peru during the civil war between the two brothers, Atahualpa and Huascar. A few other aspects aside from indigenous allies, advanced weaponry, and rapid moving diseases gave the Spanish advantages that also helped them overthrow the two empires. Coincidentally, the year the Spanish arrived in Mexico, 1519, the Nahua were expecting Quetzalcoatl, an ancient god that was believed to return and reclaim his positions and lands. In the eyes of the Nahua, Hernan Cortes could have very well been Quetzalcoatl since Quetzalcoatl was described as white and bearded[7]. Since the Nahua had never seen Europeans before, these foreign, white, fully clothed creatures were treated like gods and welcomed. Being invited to stay in Moctezuma’s palace in the powerful city of Tenochtitlan put the Spaniards at yet another advantage. Unknowingly, Moctezuma put Tenochtitlan in danger and at a huge disadvantage. Cortes used being welcomed into the city as his way of capturing the vulnerable Moctezuma and starting his two year conquest. Like Cortes, Pizarro found himself at an advantage when he and his men arrived in Peru during a civil war caused by Atahualpa, the eventual emperor of the Incas and his brother, Huascar. “The wily Pizarro was able to play the two sides against each other, achieving the ultimate victory for himself. Each side in the Inca civil war saw the other as the greatest threat. ”[8] Little did each side know that the biggest threat would be the Spanish leader, Pizarro. The civil war separated and weakened the Incas as a whole and gave the Spaniards a huge advantage since there was barely an established leader for the Incas. Like Cortes, Pizarro took the emperor hostage and demanded gold to the top of the ceiling. If granted, Pizarro would set Atahualpa free. After giving Pizarro the amount of gold he wanted, expecting to be freed, Atahualpa was strangled. From the Nahua perspective, they were clearly conquered because Tenochtitlan had been one of the most powerful cities at the time. Even though the boys were educated in battle at a young age and outnumbered the Spanish completely, they could not compare to the Spanish’s experience and advanced weaponry. Although the Spanish had many advantages and factors that aided their success, the Nahua’s impressive civilization was just too vulnerable due to their own emperor, Moctezuma, inviting the enemy inside their home; the Nahua were the weaker opponent. They felt betrayed by Cortes, since they thought he was the long expected Quetzalcoatl. A feeling of betrayal especially arose after Cortes conquered the Nahua after they had showered him in gold, lavish gifts and openly invited him and his men into the city. The Incas too, felt betrayed. After the Peruvian conquest, which started in Panama and worked its way down to Peru, the Incas were also brutally defeated due to their disadvantage of a broken civilization because of the civil war and because of the infectious diseases that depleted the Incan population. Again, although the Spanish had many advantages that helped them succeed, the Incas were the weaker opponent, like the Nahua. The Spanish, of course, viewed years 1519 through 1521 as a conquest. With mostly everything working in their favor, such as an experienced leader who helped them gained indigenous allies, advanced weaponry, immunity to viruses, a weaker opponent and an invitation to overthrow the Nahua empire, the Spanish successfully defeated the Nahua and were proud to have overthrown what used to be the most powerful civilization at the time. Like Cortes, who manipulated Moctezuma, Pizarro used a similar deceptive tactic that would eventually make the Spanish victors of the conquest of the Incas. Nonetheless, the Spanish also see the fall of the Incan empire as a conquest because Pizarro overthrew Atahualpa and acquired the main goal of the Spanish journey: gold. The way history was documented during Voice assistants suck, but they suck worse if you have an accent times differed between the Nahua, the Inca, and the Spanish, as well as what they chose to record[9]. So although it may be hard to determine concrete facts, it is easy to distinguish similarities and differences between the conquest of the Nahua and the conquest of the Inca. Firstly, the Spanish were in search for power, land to conquer, and treasures for both expeditions of the Nahua and Inca. Secondly, both Spanish leaders, Cortes and Pizarro used their experience in alliance making skills and manipulative tactics such as taking the emperors hostage to acquire what they were initially looking for: gold. As if the experienced leaders and indigenous alliances didn’t contribute enough to both conquests, the Spanish were definitely the stronger team, with both the Nahua and Inca drowned in disadvantages and vulnerable with not only inferior weaponry, but sticky situations due to a civil war and a misunderstanding of the arrival of an ancient god. Another aspect that the two conquests share are the enforcement of Christianity. Cortes and Pizarro tried enforcing their religion to the Nahua and Inca people. With many similarities between the two conquests, there are also a few differences. The conquest VISUAL ESSAY: Postcards from Xolobeni the Inca differs from the conquest of the Nahua because the Nahua had an established leader, Moctezuma while the Incas did not due to the civil war; the Inca empire was at war with each other, which distracted the Incas from their real enemy, the Spanish. Another difference between the two Luke Rockhold: Conor McGregor’s ‘on the brink of insanity’ and ‘it’s f—king awesome’ is that while both Cortes and Pizarro had experience in alliance-making skills with indigenous peoples, Cortes made alliances with neighboring rival cities while Pizarro, also having a few allies, mostly turned the Incas against each other. Lastly, a difference between the two conquests is the bravery of Atahualpa compared to the cowardly Moctezuma. The Spaniards could see that Atahualpa was not like Moctezuma in a sense that they could easily manipulate him into getting what they wanted. The conquests of the two extremely powerful empires set a mark in history and was a huge accomplishment in the conquest of the Americas. However, these events were just the beginning of the history of Latin America.

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